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Orange and grey downward bars represent significant volcanic and cold events respectively according to the references indicated speleothem dating. 12 belonging to the Northern Hemisphere are represented in brown, 4 from the Southern Hemisphere in blue, and one for the Low Latitudes in yellow. The orbital or Milankovitch cycles are the best studied, and between them and the Lunar nodal regression cycle of 18. Despite these problems, three relatively well established millennial-scale climatic periodicities can be described based on evidence. Blue boxes, major periods of regional and global glacier advances as in Mayewski et al. The last drift-ice period corresponds to the Little Ice Age, and other known climatic periods of the past can be correlated to this record. The 1,500 year fit is problematic as some peaks appear to follow the 1,000 year periodicity. Notice that all Holocene abrupt climate changes are cooling events. While the entire sixth millennium BP had a very challenging climate compared to previous millennia, the cooling event that took place 5. As a general rule, the lower the frequency, the more intense the climatic variance produced. (E) Romania (Steregoiu), mean annual temperature of the coldest month speleothem dating. For a geographical representation of the glaciers included in each area see Solomina et al. High and low latitude locations of proxy evidence for abrupt climate change ~ 5,200 yr ago. 2 kyr ago) started with global warming as a recovery from the depressed temperatures of the cooling oscillations that separate the periods.

There are no global warming abrupt changes in the Holocene once the thermal maximum is reached, just cooling events followed by recovery. Nature of climatic oscillations during the Ice Age. 9) Bond events display a mixture of periodicities that respond to different forcings, thus a Bond cycle does not exist in the Holocene. The 32 Myr cycle has produced two cycles during the Cenozoic era, the first ending in the glaciation of Antarctica and the second in the current Quaternary Ice Age. Acknowledgements References [bibliography  ] Share this:. They are the already mentioned ~ 2400 year Bray solar variability cycle, a ~ 1500 year oceanic cycle that might be related to the D-O cycle of glacial periods, and the ~ 1000 year Eddy solar variability cycle. These episodes give us an average spacing of ~ 2400 years and, at the same time, they define the major climatic states of the Holocene. The global warming that has taken place during the last 350 years cannot be separated from the previous cooling without losing part of its context. The other major salient characteristic of the Holocene abrupt climatic changes compared to glacial abrupt changes is their much smaller amplitude (figure 45). The Bray cycle delimits five periods that roughly correspond to the Blytt-Sernander sequence. Bond events represent periods of increased deposition of petrological tracers by drift ice at the core locations (black dots) within the ice-rafted debris belt (IRD, yellow box). Our knowledge of this range is very insufficient, despite millennial climate cycles (grey band) determining most of Holocene climatic variability. 6 years lies the orbital gap, where no astronomical cycle is known to affect climate. , 2001) shows that these climatic periodicities cover the full spectrum of climate variation, and that, in general, the longer periodicities produce larger variations in climate.

Cooling events during the HCO, like the 8. 2 kyr event, were followed by a complete recovery of temperatures and globally glaciers reached their minimum Holocene extent in most areas between 6000-5500 years BP. Holocene climate variability The Last Glacial Maximum and the HCO constitute two extreme metastable states, separated by only 10,000 years, that correspond to essentially the same amount of incoming energy from the Sun.
. Grey curve is the June insolation at 60°N (inverted scale). Roger Bray recognized several major past cooling episodes and attributed them to a solar cycle. It also suffers from different noise intensity for different paleoclimatic periods and is affected by changing sampling rates. (G) High resolution GISP2 potassium (non-sea salt). This is the case in the Little Ice Age, when the lows of all three cycles took place in close succession, contributing to make this the coldest period in the Holocene, bringing it to the brink of triggering a glacial period. The early Holocene period clearly displays 1,000 year periodicity as shown by a Gaussian filter applied on the series (green curve). As we do not have a proper knowledge of the mechanisms of these cycles, we do not have an explanation for this behavior. Short term climate variability is dominated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Bond events constitute a record of cold events during the Holocene. , 2013, from 73 proxies averaged by differencing and with the original published dates. .

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程 海 教授 Prof. Hai Cheng. 国家千人特聘学者. 西安交通大学 全球环境变化研究院. 美国明尼苏达大学 地球科学系
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How old are the formations at Sudwala Caves? South African born geologist, Dr Robyn Pickering, is really fascinated by this question and has been working with the ...
学会発表 - Geosphere and Biosphere - http://www-gbs.eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~kano/presen.html

Hada Muhlash, Akihiro Kano, Lithological properties on diagenesis process of Miocene carbonate rocks in northeast Java Basin, Indonesia. 地球惑星科学関連 ...
Origin of Limestone Caves | The Institute - http://www.icr.org/article/origin-limestone-caves/

A cave is a natural opening or cavity within the earth, generally extending from the earth's surface to beyond the zone of light. Three generic classes of caves can ...
Global Warming: Will Human-Induced - http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/global_warming.html

Yes, global warming is real and most of the recent increases in temperature are directly the result of human actions. However, a number of predictions publicized in ...
Ice core basics - Antarctic Glaciers - http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glaciers-and-climate/ice-cores/ice-core-basics/

Although radiometric dating of ice cores has been difficult, Uranium has been used to date the Dome C ice core from Antarctica. Dust is present in ice cores, and it ...
Skeptic Papers 2017 (1) - P Gosselin - http://notrickszone.com/skeptic-papers-2017-1/

Yan et al., 2017 Morpho- and hydrodynamic variations seem to coincide with northern hemispheric solar forcing. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) until about 1270 CE ...
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“In this study, we demonstrate that the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~1400–1850 CE) might be more representative of future hydroclimatic variability than the conditions ...
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Comprehensive and meticulously documented facts about global warming. Learn about greenhouse gases, global temperatures, causes and effects, politics, and more.
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程 海 教授 Prof. Hai Cheng. 国家千人特聘学者. 西安交通大学 全球环境变化研究院. 美国明尼苏达大学 地球科学系
About the Caves | The Nerja Caves - http://www.thenerjacaves.com/about-the-caves/

Nerja Caves/Cuevas de Nerja, the History and Galleries
日本洞窟学会 - http://www.speleology.jp/publish/journal_4.html

第32巻目次(Dec 28,2007) ASHIDA, H.: Oecurrence of the Trechiama yamajii Complex of the Group of Trechiama oni (Coleoptera, Trechinae) in the Northwestern ...
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How old are the formations at Sudwala Caves? South African born geologist, Dr Robyn Pickering, is really fascinated by this question and has been working with the ...
学会発表 - Geosphere and Biosphere - http://www-gbs.eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~kano/presen.html

Hada Muhlash, Akihiro Kano, Lithological properties on diagenesis process of Miocene carbonate rocks in northeast Java Basin, Indonesia. 地球惑星科学関連 ...
Origin of Limestone Caves | The Institute - http://www.icr.org/article/origin-limestone-caves/

A cave is a natural opening or cavity within the earth, generally extending from the earth's surface to beyond the zone of light. Three generic classes of caves can ...
Global Warming: Will Human-Induced - http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/global_warming.html

Yes, global warming is real and most of the recent increases in temperature are directly the result of human actions. However, a number of predictions publicized in ...
Ice core basics - Antarctic Glaciers - http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glaciers-and-climate/ice-cores/ice-core-basics/

Although radiometric dating of ice cores has been difficult, Uranium has been used to date the Dome C ice core from Antarctica. Dust is present in ice cores, and it ...
Skeptic Papers 2017 (1) - P Gosselin - http://notrickszone.com/skeptic-papers-2017-1/

Yan et al., 2017 Morpho- and hydrodynamic variations seem to coincide with northern hemispheric solar forcing. The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) until about 1270 CE ...
Non-Global Warming: 350 Graphs - P - http://notrickszone.com/global-warming-disputed-300-graphs/

“In this study, we demonstrate that the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~1400–1850 CE) might be more representative of future hydroclimatic variability than the conditions ...
Global Warming – Just Facts - http://www.justfacts.com/globalwarming.asp

Comprehensive and meticulously documented facts about global warming. Learn about greenhouse gases, global temperatures, causes and effects, politics, and more.
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